Lasers Med Sci. 2022 Aug 25. doi: 10.1007/s10103-022-03630-z. Online ahead of print.
The single and associated impressions of photobiomodulation (PBM) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADS) on stereological parameters (SP), and gene expression (GE) of some antioxidant and oxidative stressors of repairing injured skin at inflammation and proliferation steps (days 4 and 8) of a delayed healing, ischemic, and infected wound model (DHIIWM) were examined in type one diabetic (DM1) rats. DM1 was induced by administration of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) in 48 rats. The DHIIWM was infected by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The study comprised 4 groups (each, n = 6): Group 1 was the control group (CG). Group 2 received allograft human (h) ADSs transplanted into the wound. In group 3, PBM (890 nm, 80 Hz, 0.2 J/cm2) was emitted, and in group 4, a combination of PBM+ADS was used. At both studied time points, PBM+ADS, PBM, and ADS significantly decreased inflammatory cell count (p < 0.05) and increased granulation tissue formation compared to CG (p < 0.05). Similarly, there were lower inflammatory cells, as well as higher granulation tissue in the PBM+ADS compared to those of alone PBM and ADS (all, p < 0.001). At both studied time points, the GE of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was remarkably higher in all treatment groups than in CG (p < 0.05). Concomitantly, the outcomes of the PBM+ADS group were higher than the single effects of PBM and ADS (p < 0.05). On day 8, the GE of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1 and NOX4 was substantially less in the PBM+ADS than in the other groups (p < 0.05). PBM+ADS, PBM, and ADS treatments significantly accelerated the inflammatory and proliferative stages of wound healing in a DIIWHM with MRSA in DM1 rats by decreasing the inflammatory response, and NOX1 and 4 as well; and also increasing granulation tissue formation and SOD and CAT. The associated treatment of PBM+ADS was more effective than the individual impacts of alone PBM and ADS because of the additive anti-inflammatory and proliferative effects of PBM plus ADS treatments.