Saudi J Biol Sci. 2022 Sep;29(9):103391. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2022.103391. Epub 2022 Jul 22.
BACKGROUND: Tendinopathy or tendon injuries can affect many people, causing a huge impact on their movements and maintaining standing posture. Treatment options include physiotherapy, anti-inflammatory drugs, and alternative medicine. The use of physiotherapy or anti-inflammatory drugs may cause some side effects like pain and liver failure, respectively, therefore, alternative medicine will be a better choice.
METHOD: Tenocytes were isolated from sheep Achilles tendon and used in Alamar blue assay to assess the metabolic activity, proliferation, and viability of tenocytes over 24 hrs. and 48 hrs., using natural and synthetic products [i.e., olive oil, oleic acid, corn oil, Inula viscosa oil, Inula viscosa extract, Nigella sativa oil, naproxen sodium, and paracetamol and LED photobiomodulation]. Furthermore, tenocytes viability was assessed by FDA/PI stain. For migration and healing of a wound, the scratch assay was used.
RESULTS: Alamar blue assay over 24 hrs. showed that Nigella sativa oil increased the metabolic activity, proliferation, and viability of tenocytes significantly, while Alamar blue over 48 hrs. showed that oleic acid, LED, and their combination increased these parameters for tenocytes significantly. Olive oil increased the viability of tenocytes significantly using FDA/PI stains. Scratch assay revealed that Inula viscosa oil, Inula viscosa extract, and paracetamol increased tenocyte migration and healing significantly.
CONCLUSION: Nigella sativa oil, olive oil, oleic acid, Inula viscosa oil, and Inula viscosa extract may be used as an alternative therapy for tendinopathy with less side effects.